|AMCC||S3017 - SONET/SDH/ATM OC-12 Transmitter|
|Cypress||CY7B923 - HOTLink Transmitter|
|Gennum||GS9022 - Digital Video Serialiser|
|Hewlett Packard||HDMP-1022 - G-LINK, Gigabit Rate Transmitter|
|National Semiconductor||DS92LV1021 - 10-bit Bus LVDS Serializer|
|Texas Instruments||SN75LVDS83 - Flatlink Transmitter|
|Vitesse||VSC7115 - Fibre Channel Transmitter|
|Vitesse||VSC7214 - Multi-Gigabit Interconnect Chip|
|Motorola||MC100SX1451FI100 - AutoBahn Spanceiver|
This page gives an introduction to the functions of the transmitter and receiver ICs in general. At the top of this page you find a table which contains pointers to pages describing specific transmitter and receiver ICs.
Those component pages in turn contain the following sections:
While there is in all front-end links some form of radiation, there is currently no knowledge at all on the radiation hardness of any of the components described. Therefore I believe top priority should be given to test at least a few types as soon as possible.
Comments to this document and suggestions for other components are welcomed
and may be sent to Erik Van der
The second reason for the coding is that on average the same amount of 0's and of 1's have to be sent. This will give a DC-balance, which prevents drivers and receivers from running against one of the power rails and which allows AC-coupling. Also, the lack of DC-balance can potentially result in data-dependent heating of lasers due to a transmitter sending more 1s than 0s, resulting in higher error rates.
Not all transmitter chips have a coder integrated, in which case the user must ensure some form of coding.
In all cases the transmitter chip will have an integrated Phase-Locked Loop (PLL), which multiplies the clock that comes at the rate of the parallel data into the frequency used for the serialiser.
For serial link speeds above 400 Mbps, transmission over fibre-optic cabling is the only feasible way to send data over a distance more than several tens of meters. Complete fibre-optic transmitter and receiver modules exist from many vendors. Those modules have integrated laser drivers and laser components (transmitter) and PIN-diodes and associated electronics (receiver) and have either a piggy-tail fibre coming out, or have an integrated fibre-optic connector. Also transceivers exist that have both a transmitter and a receiver in one package. Those modules cost in the order of $200 (Jan-1998). Of course one may build the fibre-optic drivers and receivers out of separate components, but this requires a high degree of knowledge about analog high-frequency electronics.
Byte synchronisation makes sure that the receiver will synchronise on the datastream so that when the data is given out as a parallel word, that bit 0 which was sent out by the transmitter will also be received as bit 0 and for example not as bit 1 or bit 5. Different solutions for this exist and are for gigabit serialiser ICs much more complicated than added start and stop bits like is done for simple and slow protocols such as RS-232. In most cases the transmitter will have to send some special synchronisation characters which the receiver will use to align the data. After this synchronisation is done, in principle no other synchronisations have to be made. However, errors on the link may cause loss of synchronisation.
CERN - High Speed Interconnect
Erik Van der Bij - 13 April 1999 - Disclaimer